Is it scholarly?

Criteria Scholarly Popular Trade
Author Scholars with credentials Journalists, staff, or freelance Staff or contributing authors
Publication
Process
Refereed Edited Not refereed
Structure Title, abstract, introduction, review of literature, methods, findings, discussion, conclusion, and bibliography/works cited Varies Varies
Style Formal Varies Varies
Support of
Argument
Based on prior
research
Confirmed sources Report on industry trends, new products, or techniques
Purpose To advance knowledge in the field To inform, persuade, or entertain To inform within one industry
Scope Limited to field of study Often broad Limited to a specific profession or industry
Audience Scholars, students, and practitioners General public Members of a specific business, industry, or organization
Appearance Plain, sometimes with graphs, tables, maps, or photographs Glossy photos and advertising Ads apply to specific industry, articles may include abstracts and bibliographies